Remote Sensing Terminology
The Landsat program is a series of American satellites that use the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum to record images of the Earth's surface. It is the longest running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery, and started back in 1972. The most recent, Landsat 8, was launched in 2013.
Landsat satellites are located in a polar orbit, which allows them to provide images of almost all of the Earth's geography. As the satellite orbits the Earth from pole to pole, it appears to move from east to west because of the Earth’s rotation. This apparent movement allows the satellite to view a new area with each orbit.
Determining land cover has become one of the most common uses of Landsat Imagery and remotely sensing generated images all around the world.
The LiDAR sensor produces a series of point measurements that consists of geographic location (X & Y) and height (Z) of both natural and man-made features, and can be further processed to produce several different products and integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS).
Click here to learn more about LiDAR
The amount of energy returning to the sensor (known as backscatter) is dependent upon the topography, roughness, and dielectric properties (moisture). Areas of an image with low backscatter appear dark (such as water), while areas of high backscatter appear as light gray levels approximating white shades. By interpreting the various gray tones, textures and patterns, the user can detect information regarding to the regions geologic lithology and structure.
In much of remote sensing, the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This is exemplified by the use of imaging systems where the following seven elements are involved. Note, however that remote sensing also involves the sensing of emitted energy and the use of non-imaging sensors. Click here to learn more about Remote Sesning
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“the Machete” … also known as “the Nicaraguan Lawn Mower” …
I found this neat T Shirt while walking around one of the local markets in Managua (the market alone can be a whole story / experience all by itself) and couldn’t resist getting it to add to my cheesy T shirt collection (especially since it was only $5).
And, actually the funnier part of this little story was that I often did see people cut grass here with a machette. In fact one day a of the few army guys at the local base cleared a whole grass field right where we landed our helicopter everyday…
“Good luck finding a someone mowing around here with a John Deere ride on mower”
For this job we were based in the town of Rio Blanco of Matagalpa, or basically the furthest town east of Managua that is still on the pavement (even though our project was about 60 km further east … this was the closest town to base out of).
The town is about a three to four hour drive east of Managua (about 220 km) over a sub par highway, secondary roads and a few dirt road sections (with a lot of rough sections and construction). The roadway meanders through some small towns along with a wonderfully scenic mountainous background that helps make up for the long journey. Along the route we pass many bus loads of people, trucks topped with supplies (with and without people on the back), other vehicles, as well as various horse and cattle spread out along the side of the road.
Rio Blanco (Spanish for “White River” that may have got its name for the river of the same name that pours down from Cerro Musún – yet another extinct volcano) is apparently renowned for its simplicity and its surrounding natural treasures, witch one can easily appreciate, it is a rather busy little place that boasts a population of around 30 000. Just like most places in Nicaragua, poverty is clearly abundant here. The climate here is very humid and tropical, with heavy rains almost every day (or night) because it is what they call the Rainy Season here. It will be hot and sunny one moment, then maybe get a rain shower for an hour or so and then it can easily be back to sunny again.
The hotels in Rio Blanco are inexpensive but also not very glitzy, the one we are staying is the best in town I believe and it does have running water (no hot water though) and electricity too witch I am told not all hotels here actually do.
On the plus side it is much more of a town then the people in Managua seem to have given it credit, and although it certainly is a little bit different then most towns I have stayed in, it is not all bad. Perhaps a little rough around the edges but it seems to have all the necessary basics that we need to operate with. Gas stations, restaurants, little stores, a place to land and secure our helicopter etc. Rio Blanco is not in any travel guide so probably does not get many tourists, the people are pretty friendly but not used to dealing with outsiders from Canada (I think just bible pushers mostly) very much so we do get a lot of attention .
We have been living on local dishes such as gallo pinto (a mixture of rice and beans), grilled beef (carne) or chicken (pollo) a small salad, cheese (cuajada) and fried plantains. Almost every restaurant here has the same menu so it doesn’t really matter where you go to eat. And there are three main beers (Toña, Victoria & Premium) witch turns out is almost cheaper then water and pretty common everywhere, I would even have to say that the locals drink more beer here then back home. A cold beer in a bar can go for about $1 to $2.
It is also funny to see cattle walk through the down town like every thing is normal, especially this one particular white cow that I have saw in town early in the morning at least 3 or 4 times.
to be continued …
Here is a video collage of photos from Rio Blanco (note: not by me), Nicaragua that I found on Youtube (has some Spanish music playing along with it, could be better with the volume turned down)
Well after a lengthy wait and battle to get the Nicaraguan Customs to finally get all their paper work sorted (or what ever the problem was) and release our equipment to us, we were able to get to work. And stop pretending to be American tourists or Gringos as the slang term here is.
We rented a hanger at the airport to use while we installed our LIDAR equipment onto the helicopter. Well actually it was more so a shelter from the sun then a traditional aircraft hangar as we would define it back home (… but glad to have it none the less).
Even came with indoor plumbing facilities :) although maybe not up to North American Standards. And I am sure it would never get used by any of the females that I know, or to tell the truth I couldn’t picture anybody using it !! .
Now that all was back in order as far as equipment is concerned and we have had the grand tour of this Central American paradise (or the western side of it) it is off to the Wild’s of Nicaragua along the east coast. Oddly enough I have not heard anything good about Rio Blanco nor any the other interior areas from anybody here in the city. People around here in Managua tell us that we will need hammocks, mosquito nets, a good 4×4, plus need to bring all of our own supplies etc. etc.
Maybe it will be a real Jungle expedition just like in the movies … “Indian Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Arc adventure here I come” …