The design of the spatial database is the formal process of analyzing facts about the real world into a structured model. Database design is characterized by the following phases: requirement analysis, logical design and physical design. In more common terms, you basically need a plan, a design layout and then the data to complete the process.
Here is a poster generated with ESRI ArcGIS for a summer GIS project that I worked on for Parks Canada. [The PDF technical report details the methodologies and issues that were encountered with a Spatial GIS vegetation database and GIS Spatial modeling project at the Applied Geomatics Research Group (AGRG) during the summer of 2004 that involved generating a spatial geographic database for Jeremy’s Bay Campground of Kejimkujik National Park and Historic Site. High resolution aerial photography acquired from a previous AGRG (COGS) aerial photography mission was used along with extensive data collected during a Rapid Vegetation Assessment survey and a detailed forest stand interpretation.]